PHILIPPINES

Surface area: 300 000 km2 (approx.)
Population : 60 million (approx.)


1. LAWS OF METROLOGY

The laws concerning metrology in the Philippines are:

1.1 Legal requirements for traceability

Per Sec. 6 of Batas Pambansa BIg, 8, national standards shall be traceable to the BIPM. Under the National Internal Revenue Code and the Local Tax Code, standards used in the inspection of weights and measures shall be traceable to the national standards.

2. LEGAL UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

The legal units of measurement in the Philippines is based on the metric system or the SI (International System of Units) as provided for by Batas Pambansa BIg. 8 - An Act Defining the Metric System and its Units, Providing for its Implementation and for Other Purposes. The use of the metric system is further reinforced by the Consumer Act of the Philippines.

3. STRUCTURE OF METROLOGICAL CONTROL AUTHORITIES

3.1 National organization for legal metrology

There are several government institutions and agencies directly or indirectly concerned with metrology in the Philippines, with ITDI at the forefront.

Other institutions involved in metrology are:
These government institutions provide the regulatory functions related to legal metrology.

3.2 Custodian of National Standards

The custodian of Philippine national standards, except for the second is:

Metrology Laboratory
Standards and Testing Division, STD
Industrial Technology Development Institute, ITDI
Department of Science and Technology, DOST
General Santos Avenue, Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila
Telephone: (632) 823-8071
Fax: (632) 822-0032
The custodian of Philippine national standard for the second is:

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration
(PAGASA).
also under the Department of Science and Technology.

3.3 National organization responsible for maintaining primary standards

The Philippine national (primary) standards are maintained by the national custodians, namely, the ITDI and the PAGASA (see clause 3.2).

3.4 Regional and local verification organizations.

Under the Local Government Code, each province, city or municipality through their Treasurer's Office, performs on-site inspection and sealing of weights and measures used in trade and commerce which are generally for mass, length and volume measurements.

The Bureau of Product Standards of the Department of Trade and Industry or through its accredited laboratories, inspects weights and measures instruments of manufacturing and industrial companies for its PS Quality Mark Certification scheme and consumer protection purposes.

Also, in support of industrial and technological activities in urban and rural areas lying outside, the central capital region of Metro Manila, the DOST has set up calibration an testing laboratories to cater to the particular needs of these provincial regions. ITDI, being an agency under the DOST, plays an active role in providing calibration services regional laboratories including the training of their technical personnel.

3.5 Instrument calibration and evaluation systems

The ITDI has established a metrology laboratory which provides testing and calibration services to the general public, particularly those from the industrial sector and other government regulatory agencies. Its capabilities however are quite limited to a few metrological sectors.

4. RANGE OF EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO LEGAL METROLOGY

Under the National Internal Revenue Code and the Local Tax Code, weighing scales, linear measures and volume measures shall be officially sealed before use in any trade or commercial transaction.
 
Also under the Consumer Act of the Philippines, all instruments for weights and measures in all consumer and consumer related transactions shall be tested, calibrated and sealed.

Due to the limited calibration and testing capabilities of government measurement or regulatory bodies, meters used by companies providing basic utilities to the public such as water, electric power (energy) and transportation are calibrated by the same utilities providing the service.

5. TYPE APPROVAL

5.1 Legal and technical requirements for type approval

The Metrology laboratory of the STD/ ITDI indirectly provides type approval of weights and measures instruments by:
In both cases, consideration is given to intended use or application and to the testing of the same for accuracy against internationally recommended or recognized procedures to the farthest extent possible.

Instruments commonly submitted for type approval are test weights for commercial and industrial purposes, and calibration buckets and proving tanks generally used for volume measurement of petroleum products.

5.2 Authority responsible for issuing type approval

The authority responsible for issuing type approval depends on the type of commodity requiring measurement control. For example, the Energy Regulatory Board prescribes and approves electric energy meters used by the different electric utility companies operating in the country. The prescribing and approving procedure is often done in consultation with other government institutions like the ITDI and other concerned groups and sectors.

5.3 Recognition/acceptance of OIML certificates

The Philippines accepts and recognizes certificates issued by the OIML. Also as a corresponding member of the OIML, the Philippines adopts its recommendations to the fullest extent possible to suit existing conditions in the country.

5.4 Authority responsible for testing for type approval
The STD of 1TDI is the authority responsible for type approval. In the case where the ITDI is not capable of performing the required tests, the regulatory body requiring the test may use the services of a competent testing organization whether local or abroad for its testing needs.

5.5 List of major test facilities available

5.6 Fee structure [of ITDI] (for type approval)

 
Length measures
P50 toP500
Weight measures
P10 toP650
Volume measures
P10 toP1000
Moisture measures
P50 toP300
 

6. VERIFICATION (CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT)( INSPECTION AND REVERIFICATIO N)

6.1 Legal and technical requirements for verification and reverification

The Local Tax Code enacted under PD 231 dated 20 June 1973 provides for the sealing and licensing of weights and measures used for trade according to a certain schedule of fees. The provincial government body prescribes the regulations for the use of such weights and measures and also fixes penalties for fraudulent practices and unlawful possession or use of the same.

The Consumer Act of the Philippines reinforces the provisions of the above code.

The Bureau of Product Standards (ITDI is represented in its Special Technical Committee on weights and Measures) has come up with Philippine national standards for standard procedure for the verification, inspection, and sealing of weights and measures.

6.2 Range of equipment and any statistical information available

6.3 Fee structure

The ITDI being a government national standards and testing institute renders calibration and testing services on a government subsidized, non-profit basis and therefore charges fees for its services on a largely direct operating cost basis.

7. ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS

7.1 Accreditation systems for legal metrology, calibration and testing laboratories

There are at present two accrediting agencies in the Philippines namely the ITDI and the BPS.

The ITDI accredits institutions wishing to have their testing and calibration services, either for their own private use or for the general public (second and third party basis), bear official status and recognition.

The BPS also accredits private institutions or companies (on second party basis) in relation to their PS mark certification scheme. Also, BPS being the Philippine representative to the ISO provides certification to the 1S0 9000 quality certification scheme.

A Memorandum of Agreement for the establishment of a Unified National Accreditation System for Calibration and Testing Laboratories has been signed by ITDI and BPS. The unification work has been started and is in progress.

Traceability to national, regional, international or foreign measurement standards

To provide the country with traceable source of measurements, the ITDI maintains national standards of measurement for certain selected fields of metrology. Its national standards are regularly sent abroad to such organisations as CS1RO of Australia, NRLM 9f Japan, NIST of USA for re calibration to maintain their traceability.

ITDI also maintains reference and secondary standards, together with their comparators, that are used in the dissemination of measurements to the consuming public at large.

The hierarchy of measurement units and standards in the Philippines is shown in 


ITDI's measurement standards are traceable to the International Bureau of weights and Measures (BIPM) as shown in figure 2, through the National Standards Laboratories of:

Australia -----National Measurement Laboratory, NML
France --------Bureau National de Metrologie, BNM
Japan ---------National Research Laboratory of Metrology, NRLM
USA - ---------National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST.
 

Figure 2. Traceability of measurements in the Philippines

7.2 Legal and applied metrological activities in product certification.

The Product Inspection Division of the Bureau of Product Standards has the task of preparation, implementation and evaluation of policies, guidelines and procedures pertaining to inspection of products vested with the `PS mark' or with commodity clearances to determine compliance with prescribed product standards or other relevant requirements.

7.3 Legal and applied metrological activities in ISO 9000 quality management system

The Philippines has adopted into the ISO 9000 quality management and quality assurance standards series as its national standard and as such has the validity of a national standard.

Quality certification to ISO 9000 is provided to interested parties by the Bureau of Product Standards, the Philippine representative to the ISO body. There are now some 40 Philippine institutions accredited under this scheme and several more aspirants.

Other private, internationally recognized organizations like S.G.S. and Nerville CIarke also provide the same accreditation service.
The ITDI for its part is currently organizing itself to be accredited under ISO/IEC Guide 25 General Requirement for the Competence of Calibration and Testing Laboratories.

8. LEGAL METROLOGY PRACTITIONERS

8.1 Numbers

Statistics on or a roster of legal metrology practitioners in the Philippines is not available, Suffice it to say that ITDI's metrology laboratory has a staff of 30, consisting of engineers and technicians specially trained and highly skilled in providing competent, efficient and professional service to the consuming public.

Each province, city or municipality, through its Treasurer's Office, provides at least one inspector of weights and measures.
Other regulatory bodies have their own complement of inspectors or deputies to perform their regulatory functions.

8.2 Qualification/training

Basic qualifications for the technical personnel of the Metrology Laboratory of ITDI are a degree in engineering or the physical sciences. ITDI technical staff are constantly kept up to date through training programs offered and funded by foreign organizations.

Other regulatory bodies provide in-house training to their inspectors with the help of resource persons who are experts in their fields (some of which are provided by ITDI).

8.3 Training organizations and courses organized

ITDI in collaboration with DOST regional laboratories or other regulatory bodies conducts training for weights and measures inspectors on a request basis.

The Department of Measurement and Control of the Rizal Technological colleges in Metro Manila provides basic skills training in metrology.

9. PACKAGING

9.1 Legislative control for packaging

The Consumer Act of the Philippines R.A. 7394 prescribes requirements for the labeling and fair packaging for consumer products. The same law also fixes liability of the suppliers for imperfections in the quantity of the products when their net content is less than that indicated on the container.

9.2 Organization responsible

The implementing agency for the above Act is the Department of Trade and Industry.

1 0. SANCTIONS

The following are excerpts of relevant provisions from some national and local laws in the Philippines:

" ... The provincial board shall prescribe the necessary regulations for use of such weights and measures. It shall also fix the penalties for fraudulent practices and unlawful possession or use of instruments of weights and measures, provided that penalties thereon do not exceed those prescribed in Chapter VI, Title VIII, of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended."

" ... Any person who with fraudulent intent alters any scale or balance, weight, or measure after it is officially sealed, or who knowingly uses any false scale or balance, weight or measure, whether sealed or not, shall be punished by a fine of not less than two hundred pesos or by imprisonment for not less than three months nor more than two years, or both...."

"... Any person who fraudulently gives short weight or measure in the making of a sale, or who fraudulently takes excessive weight or measure in the making of a purchase, or who assuming to determine truly the weight or measure, fraudulently misrepresents the weight or measure thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than ... ."

" ... Any person who tampers with a moisture meter duly authorized to be used as provided for in the preceding sections so as to favor the seller or buyer, or who consents to the use of a moisture meter knowing that it has been tampered to favor him or the person he represents, shall upon conviction be subject to imprisonment for not less than one month nor more than six months and a fine of not less than one thousand pesos nor more than five thousand pesos ......... that when the violator is an alien, he shall be subject to the additional penalty of deportation;; .l...".


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